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@Comedy -- #Books & Magazines
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In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film, and stand-up comedy. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters. The theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old". A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a relatively powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, and is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender very dramatic irony which provokes laughter.Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humour. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without necessarily condemning them.
Comedy - Books & Magazines



@Ταινία τρόμου -- #Movie Genre
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Horror film is a film genre that seeks to elicit a negative emotional reaction from viewers by playing on their fears. Inspired by literature from authors like Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, and Mary Shelley, horror films have existed for more than a century. The macabre and the supernatural are frequent themes. Horror may also overlap with the fantasy, supernatural fiction and thriller genres.Horror films often deal with viewers´ nightmares, fears, revulsions and terror of the unknown. Plots within the horror genre often involve the intrusion of an evil force, event, or personage into the everyday world. Prevalent elements include ghosts, extraterrestrials, vampires, werewolves, demons, satanism, gore, torture, vicious animals, evil witches, monsters, zombies, cannibals, psychopaths, natural or man-made disasters, and serial killers.
Ταινία τρόμου - Movie Genre



@Romance novel -- #Interest
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The romance novel or romantic novel discussed in this article is the mass-market literary genre. Novels of this type of genre fiction place their primary focus on the relationship and romantic love between two people, and must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending." There are many subgenres of the romance novel including fantasy, historical romance, paranormal fiction, and science fiction. Walter Scott defined the literary fiction form of romance as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents".Some scholars see precursors to the genre fiction romance novels in literary fiction of the 18th and 19th centuries, including Samuel Richardson´s sentimental novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740) and the novels of Jane Austen.Austen inspired Georgette Heyer, the British author of historical romance set around the time Austen lived, as well as detective fiction. Heyer´s first romance novel, The Black Moth (1921), was set in 1751.
Romance novel - Interest



@Komik -- #Interest
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Komik adalah suatu bentuk seni yang menggunakan gambar-gambar tidak bergerak yang disusun sedemikian rupa sehingga membentuk jalinan cerita. Biasanya, komik dicetak di atas kertas dan dilengkapi dengan teks. Komik dapat diterbitkan dalam berbagai bentuk, mulai dari strip dalam koran, dimuat dalam majalah, hingga berbentuk buku tersendiri.
Komik - Interest



@Cartoons -- #Arts & Entertainment
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A cartoon is a type of two-dimensional illustration. While the specific definition has changed over time, modern usage refers to (a) a typically non-realistic or semi-realistic artistic style of drawing or painting, (b) an image or series of images intended for satire, caricature, or humor, or (c) a motion picture that relies on a sequence of illustrations for its animation. An artist who creates cartoons is called a cartoonist.The concept originated in the Middle Ages and first described a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting, fresco, tapestry, or stained glass window. In the 19th century, it came to refer to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers, and after the early 20th century, it referred to comic strips and animated films. In the 21st century, cartoons could be published on the Internet.Fine artA cartoon is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting, stained glass or tapestry. Cartoons were typically used in the production of frescoes, to accurately link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days (giornate).
Cartoons - Arts & Entertainment



@Comics -- #School
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a medium used to express ideas by images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips, editorial and gag cartoons, and comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comic albums, and ´´´´ have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century.The history of comics has followed different paths in different cultures. Scholars have posited a pre-history as far back as the Lascaux cave paintings. By the mid-20th century, comics flourished particularly in the United States, western Europe (especially in France and Belgium), and Japan. The history of European comics is often traced to Rodolphe Töpffer´s cartoon strips of the 1830s, and became popular following the success in the 1930s of strips and books such as The Adventures of Tintin. American comics emerged as a mass medium in the early 20th century with the advent of newspaper comic strips; magazine-style comic books followed in the 1930s, in which the superhero genre became prominent after Superman appeared in 1938. Histories of Japanese comics and cartooning propose origins as early as the 12th century. Modern comic strips emerged in Japan in the early 20th century, and the output of comics magazines and books rapidly expanded in the post-World War II era with the popularity of cartoonists such as Osamu Tezuka. had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and in academia.
Comics - School



@Novel -- #Books & Magazines
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Novel adalah karangan prosa yang panjang mengandung rangkaian cerita kehidupan seseorang dengan orang di sekelilingnya dengan menonjolkan watak dan sifat setiap pelaku. Penulis novel disebut novelis.Genre novel digambarkan memiliki "sejarah yang berkelanjutan dan komprehensif selama sekitar dua ribu tahun". Pandangan ini melihat novel berawal dari Yunani dan Romawi Klasik, abad pertengahan, awal roman modern, dan tradisi novella. Novella adalah suatu istilah dalam bahasa Italia untuk menggambarkan cerita singkat, yang dijadikan istilah dalam bahasa Inggris saat ini sejak abad ke-18. Ian Watt, sejarawan sastra Inggris, menuliskan dalam bukunya The Rise of The Novel (1957) bahwa novel pertama muncul pada awal abad ke-18.Miguel de Cervantes, penulis Don Quixote, sering disebut sebagai novelis Eropa terkemuka pertama di era modern. Bagian pertama dari Don Quixote diterbitkan tahun 1605.Roman adalah narasi prosa panjang yang terkait erat dengan novel. Dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, roman adalah karangan prosa yang melukiskan perbuatan pelakunya menurut watak dan isi jiwa masing-masing. Walter Scott mendefinisikannya sebagai "narasi fiktif dalam bentuk prosa atau sajak. Tujuannya adalah menjadikan peristiwa di dalamnya sebagai peristiwa yang luar biasa dan jarang terjadi", sementara dalam novel "peristiwa-peristiwanya adalah rentetan peristiwa biasa dalam kehidupan manusia dan keadaan masyarakat saat itu". Tetapi, banyak roman, termasuk roman-roman historis karya Scott, Wuthering Heights karya Emily Brontë, dan Moby-Dick karya Herman Melville, sering juga disebut novel. Roman yang disebutkan di sini berbeda dengan roman percintaan fiksi populer atau novel roman. Bahasa-bahasa Eropa lainnya tidak membedakan antara roman dan novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo."
Novel - Books & Magazines



@Novels -- #Books & Magazines
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A novel is any relatively long piece of written narrative fiction, normally in prose, and typically published as a book.The genre has also been described as possessing, "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years". This view sees the novel´s origins in Classical Greece and Rome, medieval, early modern romance, and the tradition of the novella. The latter, an Italian word used to describe short stories, supplied the present generic English term in the 18th century. Ian Watt, however, in The Rise of the Novel (1957) suggests that the novel first came into being in the early 18th century,Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote, is frequently cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era; the first part of Don Quixote was published in 1605.The romance is a closely related long prose narrative. Walter Scott defined it as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents", whereas in the novel "the events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society". However, many romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë´s Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville´s Moby-Dick, are also frequently called novels, and Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo."
Novels - Books & Magazines



@Fantasy -- #Interest
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Fantasy is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe, often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Most fantasy uses magic or other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds. Fantasy is generally distinguished from the genres of science fiction by the expectation that it steers clear of scientific and macabre themes, respectively, though there is a great deal of overlap among the three, all of which are subgenres of speculative fiction.In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, however, fantasy comprises works by many writers, artists, filmmakers, and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works.Fantasy is studied in a number of disciplines including English and other language studies, cultural studies, comparative literature, history and medieval studies. Work in this area ranges widely from the structuralist theory of Tzvetan Todorov, which emphasizes the fantastic as a liminal space, to work on the connections (political, historical and literary) between medievalism and popular culture.
Fantasy - Interest



@Education -- #Interest
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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.Education is commonly divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and then college, university, or apprenticeship
Education - Interest