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@Tattoos -- #Art
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A tattoo is a form of body modification, where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.EtymologyThe word tattoo, or tattow in the 18th century, is a loanword from the Polynesian word tatau, meaning "to write". The Oxford English Dictionary gives the etymology of tattoo as "In 18th c. tattaow, tattow. From Polynesian (Samoan, Tahitian, Tongan, etc.) tatau. In Marquesan, tatu." Before the importation of the Polynesian word, the practice of tattooing had been described in the West as painting, scarring, or staining.This is not to be confused with the origins of the word for the military drumbeat or performance — see military tattoo. In this case, the English word tattoo is derived from the Dutch word taptoe (OED).The first written reference to the word tattoo (or tatau), appears in the journal of Joseph Banks (24 February 1743 – 19 June 1820), the naturalist aboard Captain Cook´s ship the HMS Endeavour: "I shall now mention the way they mark themselves indelibly, each of them is so marked by their humour or disposition".The word "tattoo" was brought to Europe by the explorer James Cook, when he returned in 1769 from his first voyage to Tahiti and New Zealand. In his narrative of the voyage, he refers to an operation called "tattaw".
Tattoos - Art



@Depression -- #Diseases
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Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person´s thoughts, behavior, feelings, and sense of well-being.People with a depressed mood may be notably sad, anxious, or empty; they may also feel notably hopeless, helpless, dejected, or worthless. Other symptoms expressed may include senses of guilt, irritability, or anger. Further feelings expressed by these individuals may include feeling ashamed or an expressed restlesness. These individuals may notably lose interest in activities that they once considered pleasurable to family and friends or otherwise experience either a loss of appetite or overeating. Experiencing problems concentrating, remembering general facts or details, otherwise making decisions or experiencing relationship difficulties may also be notable factors in these individuals´ depression and may also lead to their attempting or actually committing suicide.In addition to all the aforementioned factors, actions committed by siblings of these individuals may also contribute to the decision-making in individuals experiencing depression or attempting to take their own lives.Expressed insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, and vocalizing general aches, pains, and digestive problems and a reduced energy may also be present in individuals experiencing depression.
Depression - Diseases



@Deprimido -- #Diseases
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La depresión es el diagnóstico psiquiátrico que describe un trastorno del estado de ánimo, transitorio o permanente, caracterizado por sentimientos de abatimiento, infelicidad y culpabilidad, además de provocar una incapacidad total o parcial para disfrutar de las cosas y de los acontecimientos de la vida cotidiana . Los trastornos depresivos pueden estar, en mayor o menor grado, acompañados de ansiedad.El término médico hace referencia a un síndrome o conjunto de síntomas que afectan principalmente a la esfera afectiva: como es la tristeza constante, decaimiento, irritabilidad, sensación de malestar, impotencia, frustración a la vida y puede disminuir el rendimiento en el trabajo o limitar la actividad vital habitual, independientemente de que su causa sea conocida o desconocida. Aunque ése es el núcleo principal de síntomas, la depresión también puede expresarse a través de afecciones de tipo cognitivo, volitivo o incluso somático. En la mayor parte de los casos, el diagnóstico es clínico, aunque debe diferenciarse de cuadros de expresión parecida, como los trastornos de ansiedad. La persona aquejada de depresión puede no vivenciar tristeza, sino pérdida de interés e incapacidad para disfrutar las actividades lúdicas habituales, así como una vivencia poco motivadora y más lenta del transcurso del tiempo.
Deprimido - Diseases



@Headache -- #Interest
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Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It occurs in migraines ( sharp, or throbbing pains), tension-type headaches, and cluster headaches. Frequent headaches can affect relationships and employment. There is also an increased risk of depression in those with severe headaches.Headaches can occur as a result of many conditions whether serious or not. There are a number of different classification systems for headaches. The most well-recognized is that of the International Headache Society. Causes of headaches may include fatigue, sleep deprivation, stress, the effects of medications, the effects of recreational drugs, viral infections, loud noises, common colds, head injury, rapid ingestion of a very cold food or beverage, and dental or sinus issues.Treatment of a headache depends on the underlying cause, but commonly involves pain medication. Some form of headache is one of the most commonly experienced of all physical discomforts.About half of adults have a headache in a given year. Tension headaches are the most common, affecting about 1.6 billion people (21.8% of the population) followed by migraine headaches which affect about 848 million (11.7%).CauseThere are more than two hundred types of headaches. Some are harmless and some are life-threatening. The description of the headache and findings on neurological examination, determine whether additional tests are needed and what treatment is best.
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@Cardiac arrest -- #Interest
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Cardiac arrest is a sudden stop in effective blood flow due to the failure of the heart to contract effectively. Symptoms include loss of consciousness and abnormal or absent breathing. Some people may have chest pain, shortness of breath, or nausea before this occurs. If not treated within minutes, death usually occurs.The most common cause of cardiac arrest is coronary artery disease. Less common causes include major blood loss, lack of oxygen, very low potassium, heart failure, and intense physical exercise. A number of inherited disorders may also increase the risk including long QT syndrome. The initial heart rhythm is most often ventricular fibrillation. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding no pulse. While a cardiac arrest may be caused by heart attack or heart failure, these are not the same.Prevention includes not smoking, physical activity, and maintaining a healthy weight. Treatment for cardiac arrest is immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and, if a shockable rhythm is present, defibrillation. Among those who survive targeted temperature management may improve outcomes. An implantable cardiac defibrillator may be placed to reduce the chance of death from recurrence.
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@Pulmonary embolism -- #Interest
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Pulmonary embolism is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has traveled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream . Symptoms of a PE may include shortness of breath, chest pain particularly upon breathing in, and coughing up blood. Symptoms of a blood clot in the leg may also be present such as a red, warm, swollen, and painful leg. Signs of a PE include low blood oxygen levels, rapid breathing, rapid heart rate, and sometimes a mild fever. Severe cases can lead to passing out, abnormally low blood pressure, and sudden death.PE usually results from a blood clot in the leg that travels to the lung. The risk of blood clots is increased by cancer, prolonged bed rest, smoking, stroke, certain genetic conditions, estrogen-based medication, pregnancy, obesity, and after some types of surgery. A small proportion of cases are due to the embolization of air, fat, or amniotic fluid. Diagnosis is based on signs and symptoms in combination with test results. If the risk is low a blood test known as a D-dimer will rule out the condition. Otherwise a CT pulmonary angiography, lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or ultrasound of the legs may confirm the diagnosis. Together deep vein thrombosis and PE are known as venous thromboembolism .
Pulmonary embolism - Interest



@Transtorno bipolar -- #Diseases
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O transtorno bipolar do humor , distúrbio bipolar ou transtorno afetivo bipolar é um distúrbio mental em que a pessoa alterna entre períodos de depressão e períodos de elevado ânimo. O ânimo é significativo e é conhecido como mania ou hipomania, dependendo da gravidade ou se estão ou não presentes sintomas de psicose. Durante o período de mania a pessoa comporta-se ou sente-se anormalmente energética, contente ou irritável. Os doentes geralmente realizam decisões irrefletidas ou sem noção das consequências. Durante as fases maníacas a necessidade de sono tende a ser menor. Durante as fases depressivas a pessoa pode chorar, encarar a vida de forma negativa e evitar o contacto ocular com outras pessoas. O risco de suicídio entre as pessoas com a doença é elevado, sendo superior a 6% ao longo de vinte anos. Verifica-se automutilação em 30–40% dos doentes. Estão geralmente associados ao transtorno bipolar outros problemas mentais, como distúrbio de ansiedade e de consumo de drogas.As causas ainda não são totalmente compreendidas, mas tanto fatores ambientais como genéticos têm influência. Muitos genes de pequeno efeito contribuem para aumentar o risco. Os fatores ambientais incluem historial de abuso infantil e stresse de longa duração. A doença divide-se em "distúrbio bipolar do tipo 1" quando existe pelo menos um episódio maníaco e "distúrbio bipolar do tipo 2" quando existe pelo menos um episódio hipomaníaco e um episódio depressivo maior. Em pessoas com sintomas menos graves e de longa duração pode-se estar na presença de ciclotimia. Quando esta condição tem origem em problemas médicos é classificada à parte. Podem também estar presentes outras condições, incluindo distúrbio do défice de atenção com hiperatividade, distúrbios de personalidade, distúrbios relacionados com o consumo de drogas e uma série de condições médicas. O diagnóstico não requer exames médicos. No entanto, podem ser realizadas análises ao sangue e exames imagiológicos para descartar outros problemas.
Transtorno bipolar - Diseases



@Sjögren´s syndrome -- #Diseases
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Sjögren´s syndrome is a long-term autoimmune disease in which the moisture-producing glands of the body are affected. This results primarily in the development of a dry mouth and dry eyes. Other symptoms can include dry skin, a chronic cough, vaginal dryness, numbness in the arms and legs, feeling tired, muscle and joint pains, and thyroid problems. Those affected are at an increased risk of lymphoma.While the exact cause is unclear it is believed to involve a combination of genetics and an environmental trigger such as exposure to a virus or bacteria. It can occur independently of other health problems or as a result of another connective tissue disorder . The inflammation that results progressively damages the glands. Diagnosis is by biopsy of moisture-producing glands and blood tests looking for specific antibodies. On biopsy there is typically lymphocyte within the glands.Treatment is directed at the person´s symptoms. For dry eyes artificial tears, medications to reduce inflammation, or surgery to shut the tear ducts, may be tried. For a dry mouth, chewing gum, sipping water, or a saliva substitute may be used. In those with joint or muscle pain, ibuprofen may be used. Medications that can cause dryness may also be stopped such as antihistamines.
Sjögren´s syndrome - Diseases



@Pneumonia -- #Interest
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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli. Typical signs and symptoms include a varying severity and combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing, depending on the underlying cause.Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia.
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@Kentut -- #Diseases
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Flatulensi adalah keluarnya gas melalui anus atau dubur akibat akumulasi gas di dalam perut (terutama dari usus besar atau kolon). Peristiwa keluarnya gas disebut juga kentut atau sering disebut juga buang angin. Kentut biasanya ditandai dengan rasa mulas di perut.Dan biasanya berbau busuk.Ini sering menjadi pertanda kalau seseorang: Kelebihan makan makanan tertentu. Ingin buang air besar. Mengalami efek samping obat-obatan tertentu. Menderita konstipasi atau sembelit. Sedang masuk angin.KandunganGas ini terutama berisi: nitrogen, oksigen, metan (diproduksi bakteri atau kuman dan mudah terbakar), karbondioksida, hidrogen dan lain-lain. Gas yang keluar dapat berbau menyengat akibat kandungan gas bergugus indol atau hidrosulfida (S-H) yang tercampur. Indera penciuman manusia cukup reaktif terhadap senyawa-senyawa yang mengandung gugus ini. Bisa saja kentut terbakar, karena kentut mengandung metana dan hidrogen yang bersifat mudah terbakar. Kalau terbakar, nyala apinya berwarna biru karena kandungan unsur hidrogen. Tetapi gas kentut tidak akan terbakar dalam kondisi normal karena konsistensinya lain. Juga suhunya tidak cukup panas untuk memulai pembakaran.
Kentut - Diseases